1629 English settlers work their way west into the Appalachians and meet the Cherokee
This date is significant because it is the first contact that the Cherokee’s have with English settlers.
1684 Treaty with South Carolina that begin a steady trade in deerskins and Indian
Indians begin to trade with the settlers, resulting in significant changes to their culture.
1692 Shawnee raid on a Cherokee village (to capture slaves for trading).
This raid was a significant event because it destroyed any trust between the Shawnee and the Cherokee.
1738/1753 Smallpox epidemics
The devastating smallpox epidemics in 1738 and 1753 killed a large amount of Cherokee’s. It was also a crisis for the priests because they were unable to cure the disease and thus lost their remaining influence.
1721 Treaty establishes land boundary between Cherokee and British.
This event is important because the British were constantly invading Cherokee land and this created between the two sides. It was also the first land cession by the Cherokee.
1754 Cherokee sign treaty affirming their alliance with the British.
The alliance between the British and the Cherokee was important because the British would need their help against the French during the French and Indian War.
1755 Battle of Taliwa.
The Battle of Taliwa is a central point in Cherokee history because their victory over the Creek gave them new territory and allowed them to side with the British during the French and Indian War.
1760-1762 Cherokee War.
The Cherokee war was important because the Indians launched a series of attacks against white settlers.
1777 Cherokee’s ask for peace
Unable to resist American attacks, the Cherokee’s asked for peace and the Treaty of DeWitt’s corner forced them to cede their remanding land in the Carolina’s.
1799 Open warfare against Americans ends
Following the complete migration in Spanish Arkansas, open warfare between the Americans and Cherokees finally ends. This is an important date because the two sides had been openly fighting for many years.
1817 Turkey Town treaty & Clan system of government replaces the tribal council
The Turkey Town treaty is important because it is the first time the United States recognized the Western Cherokee. Furthermore, the change of government is important because the tribal council had been ruling Cherokee affairs for almost their whole existence. They now needed a new type of government to deal with the growing issue or land being taken away from them.
1828 Gold discovered on Cherokee land and Andrew Jackson elected President
The discovery of gold on Cherokee land and the election of Andrew Jackson meant great trouble for the Indians.
1829 Indian Removal Act introduced in Congress
President Jackson refused to protect the Cherokee from encroachment on their homeland and this act tried to take away more of their land.
1835 Treaty of New Echota
With this treaty, the Cherokee are forced to surrender the Cherokee Nation’s homeland, seven million acres in Oklahoma, and agree to leave within two years.
(May) 1838 The deadline for Cherokee Removal – General Winfield Scott and almost whole American army moves into Cherokee homeland.
This is a major turning point in Cherokee history because the arrival of the American army was the beginning of the “Trail of Tears” where Cherokee’s were forced to leave their homes under gunpoint.
1895 & 1901 Curtis Act & forced allotment
The Curtis Act of 1895 was an important event because it dissolved tribal governments and forced Cherokee allotment during 1901.
1901 Cherokee becomes citizens
Finally by 1901, Cherokee’s become citizens of the United States. This is an important event because they are given the right to vote in elections.
1906 Cherokee Nation is dissolved
The Cherokee Nation came to a bitter defeat in 1906 when it finally dissolved. After many years of hardship, abuse, and cession of lands, the Cherokee Nation came to an end.
Sarah starts with an earlier event
1540: The Desoto expedition meets the "Chalaque" on the Tennessee River.
This is the first known encounter between Europeans and the Cherokees.
1609: Virginia is settled.
This effectively ends the isolation of the Cherokee tribe and marks the beginning of trade between the settlers and the Cherokees, which will continue as the Carolinas are settled.
1660: The Cherokee allow a group of Shawnee to settle in South Carolina.
Although this decision was initially made by the Cherokee to provide a buffer between themselves and the Iroquois, it instead sets the stage for future attacks from both tribes.
1673: Trading flourishes between the Cherokees and the white men.
James Needham and Gabriel Arthur unsuccessfully attempt to negotiate an exclusive agreement on behalf of Virginia this year; later this year trade will begin with settlers from the Carolinas.
1680: Most of the tribes acquire firearms.
An adoption from the presence of the British, the Cherokee had not previously been equipped with such weapons. They will play a key part in solidifying larger villages, but also contributed to rivalries among other groups in the area.
1684: A treaty is formed with South Carolina.
This treaty marks the beginning of trade in deerskin and Indian slaves. This will result in dramatic changes within the Cherokee tribe, as the warriors become the dominant class in place of the priests, and begin using their hunting skills for profit.
1689/1763: The Cherokee become allies with Britain in the French and Spanish wars.
The emergence of the Cherokee on behalf of the British highlights the importance of the trade agreements between the two.
1692: The Shawnee burn a large Cherokee village during a raid.
In a violent attempt to capture slaves for trade with the British, the Shawnee pillage effectively severe any relationship with the Cherokee. This incident stresses the competition between the two tribes for trading relationships with white settlers.
1705: North Carolina urges South Carolina to curb their involvement in Indian slave trade.
Tension between the Cherokee and Shawnee reaches an all-time high, and the white men begin to fear a widespread revolt.
1706: The Cherokee and Iroquois agree to peace.
In an agreement encouraged by the British, this pact opens the gateway for both groups to join forces in future skirmishes against the French. The “peace” was tentative at best, however, and some Cherokee members participate in the uprising against the Carolinas in 1715.
1721: Boundaries are established between the Cherokee and the British settlements.
This is first recorded example of the Cherokee willingly agreeing to give up part of their land. The treaty becomes useful in establishing regulation of trade between the two.
1725: The British further regulate Cherokee trade.
The government sends Colonel George Chicken to tighten the alliance with the Cherokee, particularly against the threat of the Cherokee uniting with the French. Sir Alexander Cuming later follows in his footsteps, going so far as to bring an Indian chief before King George II. This act most powerfully demonstrates the value which the British place on their relationship with the Cherokee.
1743: The Cherokee sign a treaty agreeing to trade exclusively with the British.
Although this should have been a major step in convincing the British of their loyalty, the British are still skeptical of losing Cherokee support to their French rivals
1758: Another treaty is signed by the Cherokee pleading allegiance to the British.
This treaty lasts only a year and is unable to prevent the outbreak of violence. Several skirmishes led to increasing suspicion and hostility on both sides.
1760-1762: The Cherokee War occurs.
Violence between the Cherokee and the white settlers explodes. With the French defeated, the British are able to concentrate their full attention on defeating the Cherokee. Indian towns are burned and attempts to make peace by the Cherokee are rebuffed. The Cherokee are able to fight back for a time, until the Catawba joins forces with the British and capture 15 towns. With their food supply for the winter destroyed, the Cherokee have no choice but to sign a treaty for peace and give up their land in South Carolina in return.
Emily V.'s timeline is more compact; she also has a different choice about where to begin
<http://www.tolatsga.org/Cherokee1.html <http://www.tolatsga.org/Cherokee1.html> >
“European epidemics introduced into the southeastern United States in 1540 by the Desoto expedition are estimated to have killed at least 75% of the original native population.”
“the Cherokee's location in the interior mountains kept them relatively isolated until after the settlement of Virginia in 1609. By 1629 English traders had worked their way west into the Appalachians and met the Cherokee. ”
“Increasing dependence on trade goods also drew the Cherokee to the British as allies in their wars against the French and Spanish between 1689 and 1763. Cherokee relations with their neighbors were not always friendly before contact. They raided Spanish settlements in Florida during 1673 and fought the coastal tribes of the Carolinas, but European trade and competition aggravated these rivalries and destabilized the region.”
“a treaty, signed in 1721 and thought to be the first land cession by the Cherokee, regulated trade and established a boundary between the Cherokee and the British settlements. Despite this agreement, settlement from the Carolinas was rapidly invading the lands of the Lower Cherokee east of the Appalachians and tempting the Cherokee to switch their loyalty to the French.”
“All of this trade could easily have tied the Cherokee to the French if they had been able to compete with the British, but they could not. French goods were generally inferior and more expensive, and the British had the naval power to blockade Canada in times of war (King George's War 1744-48) and halt the supply.”
“More important, the British valued their alliance with the Cherokee and worked hard to maintain it”
“Although the Cherokee signed a treaty in 1754 confirming their alliance and allowing the construction of British forts in their territory to defend the colonies, the lingering suspicion remained they were sympathetic to the French.”
Lisa chooses the same starting point as Nicholas
1629 – English and Cherokee populations have first real contact with each other.
1684 – The Cherokee began a steady trade with South Carolina, thus slowly becoming a part of this new culture.
1680 – The Cherokee had their larger villages fortified and possessed firearms. This made them a threat to neighboring tribes and villages.
1705 – Relations with neighbor tribes had become extremely hostile and the Cherokee purchase more firearms and the slave trade with South Carolina was in danger because of such hostile relations.
1706 – The British encouraged peace between the Cherokee and Iroquois and they began allying with the Carolinas against the Tuscarora
1715 – Cherokee and Chickasaw allied together to defeat the Shawnee. This brought them against pro-British Iroquois and pro-French Algonquin creating new enemies.
1721 – Agreement between the Cherokee and British settlements was made which established boundaries and regulated trade.
1738 and 1753 – Small pox epidemic killed almost half the Cherokee’s.
1759 – After allowing white settlement in their land, the Cherokee have their first “bad experience” with the whites and cooperation between the two collapsed. The Cherokee rebelled and stole some of Virginia’s horses, the Virginians then killed and mutilated the bodies of those caught.
1760 - The Cherokee attacked Fort Prince George in attempt to free the hostages, killing the fort's commander from ambush and a war began.
1761 – Colonel James Grant led his 2,600 man army and captured 15 middle Cherokee towns and destroyed the food the Cherokee needed for the coming winter. That September the Cherokee signed a treaty for peace with South Carolina or else they would not be able to survive the winter.
1768 – Treaty of Hard Labor – British negotiated new boundaries with the Cherokee and so the depletion of their land began.
Mindy's starting point is the same as Emily's but she carries the story further than Nicholas does
1540 The Desoto expedition made first contact with
the Cherokee on the Tennessee River.
European epidemics were introduced and killed 75% of
Native American population in SE US
1609 Virginia settlement established. To this point,
the Cherokee had remained relatively isolated in the
1629 English traders rediscovered the Cherokee on
their way west into the Appalachians and maintained
continuous contact with the development of the
1660 Shawnee driven south by Iroquois. Cherokee
allowed one group to stay in South Carolina and serve
as a buffer between them and the Catawba. Other
Shawnee provided a buffer in Tennessee against the
Chickasaw.The Iroquois continued attacking the Shawnee
and began also attacking the Cherokee
1673 Virginian Abraham Wood tried to dominate trade
with the Cherokee and sent James Needham and Gabriel
Arthur to the Cherokee Overhill capital at Echota.
Cherokee raided Spanish settlements in FL and fought
coastal tribes of the Carolinas
1674 Cherokee met with rival Carolina traders by the
upper Savannah River.
Cherokee population is estimated at 50, 000
1680 Cherokee had received their first firearms and
had fortified their large villages.
1684 Treaty btw. the Cherokee and South Carolina
started trade of deerskins and Indian slaves.
Leadership shift within the Cherokee from priest to
warrior. Warriors became hunters for profit.
1692 Shawnee raid to captur slaves for trade with the
English destroyed large Cherokee village
1693 Cherokee requested additional firearms from
Charleston to fight the Shawnee
1680-1763 Cherokee allies with the British in wars
against French and Spanish. Increased dependence on
1706 Peace arranged between the Cherokee and
Iroquois after British encouragement.
1708 Cherokee join forces with the Catawba and
Alibamu in an attack against the Mobile in southern
Mississippi, who had been serving as middlemenfor the
new French trading posts.
1713 Cherokee served under Colonel James Moore with
the South Carolina army against the Tuscarora
1715 Some Cherokee joined the Yamasee during the
general uprishing against the Carolinas
Cherokee join with Chickasaw to defeat the Shawnee
in Tennessee. This meant that the pro British Iroquois
and pro French Algonquin began attacking the Cherokee
at the same time.
1717 The French made peace with the Alibamu and built
a trading post at Fort Toulouse near Montgomery,
1721 Treaty signed which was the first land cession
by the Cherokee, regulated trade, and established a
boundary between the Cherokee and the British
1725 George Chicken sent by the British government
to regulate Cherokee trade and prevent them turning to
1729 Smallpox epidemic #1
1738 Smallpox epidemic #2
1743 Treaty signed at Charleston, the Cherokee made
peace with the Catawba and promised to trade only
with the British.
1745 Second alliance with the Chickasaw to force
remaining Shawnee across the Ohio River
1750 Alliance with Chickasaw aided in defeating the
French allied Choctaw
1752 Cherokee and Creek forced into a war with
each other over new land acquisition
1753 Smallpox epidemic #3 - all three of these
epidemics reduced the Cherokee population to 25,000
(where it would remain until the 1830s)
1754 Cherokee signed a treaty confirming their
alliance and allowing the construction of British
forts in their territory to defend the oclonies
1755 Decisive battle at Taliwa - Cherokee won war
with the Creek.
1759 Cherokee cooperation with the British collapsed.
Cherokee accompanying a Virginia expedition against
the Ohio Shawnee lost their provisions and were
abandoned by their white allies. Thus the Cherokee
tried to steal Virginians' horses and were attacked and
20 mulitated and scalped.
1760-62 Cherokee War - Cherokee against British -
British under Montgomery were losing
1761 British under Grant allied with the Catawba
which eventually would have starved the Cherokee. Thus
the Cherokee agreed to a treaty with the South Carolina
and gave up most of their eastern lands in the
Carolinas. A second treaty was signed with Virginia
1763 Pontiac uprising forced the British to
temporarily stop the settlements westward.
Small group of Western Cherokee (originating from
proFrench Cherokee) relocated to northern Arkansas.
(Welcomed by Spanish and given land)
1768 Land given by the Iroquois at the Fort Stanwix
opened up much of the land west of the Appalachians to
Treaty of Hard Labor- the British discussed new
boundaries with the Cherokee (b/c Iroquois had given
up lands that were originally Cherokee)
1769 Major defeat at Chickasaw Oldfields ended 11
years of sporadic warfare.
1770 Cherokee and Creek attended meetings with the
Ohio tribes over their lands
Lchaber Treaty (and Augusta Treaty in 1773) gave up
2 million acres in Georgia to pay for debts to white
1774 Watonga Treaty and the Overhill Cherokee Treaty
in 1775 they sold all the eastern and central Kenucky
to the Transylvania Land Company (Henderson Purchase).
1775 British began to give ammunition and guns for
1776 700 Chickamauga attacked two American forts in
North Carolina - both failed (set off a series of
attacks by Cherokee, etc)
1777 Cherokee asked for peace against American
DeWitt's Corner and Long Island Treaties signed at
gunpoint. Cherokee had to cede much land.
1781 Treaty of Long ISland of Hoston confirmed
cessions of 1777 and took more Cherokee land.
1794-99 American victory at Fallen Timbers, the last
groups of raiding Chickamauga left for Mississippi and
open warfare between Cherokee and Americans ended.
1782 Pro French Cherokee in Arkansas joined by a
group of pro British Cherokee. Began fighting with
Osage who originally claimed the territory.
1808 Cherokee overtook Osage and established
themselves in northern Arkansas
1817 Turkey Town Treaty formally recognized Western
Cherokee of the U.S. Cherokee ceded TN for AK
1803 Louisiana Purchase
1806 Final treaty in a long line that ceded 10
million acres of land by Doublehead. Cherokee were
very mad and resulted in his assassination as a
traitor by the faction led by Major Ridge. Ridge
became new, mixed blood leader.
1813 Cherokee fought as American allies during the
1814 Fort Jackson Treaty ended war and demanded lots
of land from Cherokee and Greek
1817 the clan system of government had been replaced
by an elected tribal council.
1821 Sequoyah (George Gist) developed a written
language (w/ 86 characters) almost all Cherokee were
literate w/in a few years.
1825 A new capital was established at NEw Echota
1827 Cherokee created a written constitution for
their government as well as established their own
courts and schools
1828 The Cherokee newspaper, the Phoenix, is
published in their native language.
Western Cherokee agreed to exhange their Arkansas
lands for lands in Oklahoma. (Final agreements made in
1830s Cherokee removal to Oklahoma
1831 Cherokee Nation won both cases before the
Supreme Court (Cherokee Nation Vs. Georgia and
Worcester Vs. Georgia) Jackson's answer: "Justice
Marshall has made his decision. Let him enforce it."
1838 General Winfield Scott and American Army drove
Cherokee from their homes at gunpoint. Thus began the
Trail of Tears.
1861 Cherokee Nation voted to secede from the U.S.
Formal treaty btw. Cherokee Nation and Confederate
government. (provided an excuse after the civil war to
void all previous treaties with the Cherokee.)
1863 Cherokee population reduced again by 25% due to
the American Civil War
1880 Whites outnumbered Indians in Indian territory.
1887 Senator Dawes secured the passage of the General
Allotment (Dawes ACt) which ultimately cost Native
Americans 2/3 of their remaining land. (5 civilized
tribes were exempt)
1890 Commissioner of Indian Affairs halted w/o
explanation the cattle trails that the Cherokee had
previously profitted from.
1893 Dawes Commission attempted to get the Five
Tribes to accept allotment, but they refused
1895 Curtis Act dissolved tribal governments
1901 Curtis Act forced allotment. (Stealing Indian
Lands began unofficially sanctioned)
Cherokee became citizens and were allowed to vote.
1905 Five Tribes attempt to form their own state of
1906 Cherokee Nation officially dissolved.
1907 Oklahoma admitted as the 46th state.
1934 Wheeler-Howard Indian Reorganization Act
1948 Present government of the Cherokee Nation formed
1961 Cherokee Nation was awarded $15,000,000 by the
U.S. Claims Commission for lands.
Christina's timeline is much more compact
1.) 1540 European epidemics were introduced into the southeastern United States. This is important because this caused over 75% of Native Americans to die.
2.) 1566 Pardo revisited the Tennesse River. This is important because the Spanish kept a mining and smelting operation there.
3.) 1684 Treaty in South Carolina. This was important because it began trade with the Indians.
4.) 1705 Cherokee delegate came to Charlestown and demanded more fire arms. This was important because North Carolina wanted South Carolina to stop trading with the Indians.
5.) 1721 A treaty is signed to regulate land and estabish boundries between Cherokees and British settlements. This was important because Europeans still invaded and tried to settle the Cherokee's land.
6.) 1800's Cherokee's adopted their government as a written constitution. This was important because white people became jealous of the lifestyle that the Cherokees adapted. They had good schools and a good government.
Jon too has fewer items than Mindy or Nicholas; he also includes ongoing events such as recurrent epidemics with dates like 1540-1674
1540**** The Desoto expedition makes first contact with Cherokees when they met the "Chalaque" on the Tennessee River.
1609**** Cherokee population remains isolated until around 1609 with the settling of Virginia.
1540-1674**** European epidemic first introduced into the southeastern United States by the Desoto expedition killing at least 75% of native population. Cherokee population down to around 50,000 by 1674.
1540-1690**** Spanish remain a small population in the southeastern U.S. till 1690.
1660-1706**** Cherokees and Iroquois war with one another.
1629**** English settlers make their way west from the Appalachians, make contact with Cherokees and begin to trade.
1706**** English seeing the warring tribes were affecting their trading arrange for there to be a peace between the Iroquois and Cherokees.
1729, 1738, 1753**** Series of small pox epidemics again introduced by Europeans dropping Cherokee numbers to 25,000.
1753-1830's**** Population remains stable
1838-1839**** U.S. troops, prompted by the state of Georgia, expelled the Cherokee Indians from their ancestral homeland in the Southeast and removed them to the Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma. The removal of the Cherokees was a product of the demand for arable land during the vast growth of cotton agriculture in the Southeast, the discovery of gold on Cherokee land, and the racial prejudice that many white southerners had toward American Indians.
1860-1865**** American Civil War reduces Cherokee numbers by 25%. This was the largest population of Americans lost during the war.
Emily B. like Mindy includes the Creek War; Cherokee allied with Andrew Jackson in that conflict
1540 – European epidemics in southeastern US have killed at least 75% of the original native population.
- This shows how much the epidemics that were brought over destroyed the native population.
1609 – Settlement of Virginia disrupts the peace of the Cherokees.
- This is when the Cherokees peace was first disrupted by the settlers.
1629 – Trade starts between the settlers and the Cherokees.
- Interaction starts with between the two groups.
1660 – Large groups of Shawnee natives are driven South by the Iroquois.
- This will lead to repercussions for the Iroquois.
1680 – Cherokees receive firearms.
- They can now protect themselves from invaders.
1684 – Treaty with South Carolina begins a steady trade of deerskin and slaves.
- This leads to a change within the Cherokee nation. Warriors become hunters which lead to a profit.
1689-1763 – Cherokees become Britain’s allies in the war against France and Spain.
- The Cherokees are in an actual battle where they have chosen a side to help protect.
1692 – Shawnee raid to capture slaves destroys a major Cherokee village.
- Destroys any trust and communications between the two tribes.
1715 – Cherokee go after the Shawnee for revenge and the Shawnee experience a major defeat.
- This brings the Cherokee to the French attention and many war parties were sent to them.
1721 – A treaty was signed that may have been the first land cession from the Cherokees and regulated trade and established a boundary between Cherokee and British land.
- Many British thought that this was the Cherokee giving up their land. This also helped the British to remain friends with the Cherokees and make sure that they did not join the French.
1743 – Another treaty was signed but this one stated that the Cherokee were at peace with the Catawba and that they would only trade with the British.
- This marks the point where the Cherokee sees that the French was not an improvement over the British and they kept up their alliance.
1752-55 – Cherokees and Creeks fight over land and the Cherokee win.
- The Cherokees acquire new land which will help them during the French and Indian war.
1759 – During the French and Indian war, 100 Cherokees who were accompanying Virginians expedition against the Ohio Shawnee lost all of their provisions while crossing a river and their white allies abandoned them. They retaliated by taking the Virginians horses which lead to the Virginians attacking and scalping those who were caught.
- This leads to the demise of the alliance between the two.
1760-62 – Cherokee War. The Cherokee get revenge by attacking British forts within distance and killing many.
- Eventually the Cherokee resign a peace treaty but with great reluctance. The peace between the two is a forced one.
1775 – British give natives guns and offer a reward for any American scalps.
- This leads to many attack on Americans but they end with the defeat of the natives and the Americans retaliated by killing many Cherokees.
1792 – A new wave of violence erupted between the Chickamauga and the Americans.
- Ended with the defeat of the Chickamauga and them moving across the Mississippi and settle in Arkansas.
1800s – Adopts their government to written form; establish own courts and schools and achieve a standard of living that is envied by many.
-The Cherokees have now became more like their white neighbors by establishing a written government.
1813-14 – Creek War in which the Cherokee served as American allies.
- Jackson demanded land from the Cherokees once the war was over which led to more tension between the two groups.
1821 – Establish their own written language.
1828 – Establish their own newspaper.
- They can now pass the written word to each other and have records of how they live.
1830 – Indian Removal Act was passed.
- This will lead to the removal and deaths of many Indians.
Amanda's annotations tend to be fuller
1540- Desoto expedition believed to have been 1st contact. I believe this is an important date because this is the first time that the Cherokee had any contact with the settlers from Europe. It may not have given them everything from Europe that they would eventually get, but it did open them up to something new.
1609-1692- English had made their way into the Appalachians and met the Cherokee. This is important because this is really when the Cherokee got a good glimpse at what the new settlers had to offer. Even though the Desoto expedition had made contact before with the Cherokee, this time when the English came everything would change drastically.
1689-1763- Increasing dependence on trade goods also drew the Cherokee to the British as allies in their wars versus France and Spain. This is important because it shows how the Cherokee needed to advance in their ways of life in order to survive. If the Cherokee did not become such allies with the British perhaps their wars against France and Spain would not have worked.
1680- Most tribes had gotten their first firearms and the Cherokee had fortified their larger villages. This is important because had the tribes not had the firearms, they would not have been able to fight against any of the new settlers. By having firearms, the Cherokee were becoming more like the new settlers that had invaded their land.
1692- Shawnee raid to capture slaves for trade with the English destroyed a major Cherokee village while it’s warriors were on a winter hunt. It destroyed any trust/friendship that existed between the two. This shows how dependent the other Native American tribes had become on trade with the British.
1693- Cherokees demand more guns
1705- The situation with the Cherokees had become so dangerous that North Carolina was urging South Carolina to curtail the trade in Native American slaves or face a massive up rising. These two dates are important because it shows just how dangerous the lives of the Cherokee had become. They were willing to do anything they could in order to get more guns and attack other tribes.
Mid 1700s- The Cherokees went to war with many neighboring tribes to keep their land. They wanted to keep their land because the white settlers were taking more and more of their land, pushing them west. They were doing everything in their power to stay where they were.
1817- The Turkey Town treaty 4,000 Cherokee ceded their lands in Tennessee in exchange for a reservation in the West Cherokee in northwest Arkansas. However, the Osage continued to object the Cherokee being there and the Americans had to build forts to keep the peace. The tribes had to keep fighting because white settlers were invading their land and they had to fight each other to keep their own land. They were being pushed out of their homes and they could not fight the white settlers.
1828- Jackson was elected President and gold was discovered on Cherokee land. If gold had not been discovered in their land they would not have been pushed out again. Miners had swarmed in and Native American removal was mentioned. The state of Georgia was dividing land by lottery and stripped the Cherokee of legal protection. The Cherokee then decided to fight this in court. This is the next level after taking away their land. Now Americans were able to pretty much able to kill off the Cherokee and it was legal.
Francis' annotations are also fuller
1629: English traders in New World finally meet Cherokee in the Appalachian Mountains. This marked the beginning of a long and hard journey for Europeans and Natives alike.
1689-1763: Increasing dependence on trade goods brought Cherokee and British colonists closer and they soon became allies against the French and Spanish for a while. The Native Americans were involved with different alliances and would be a factor for Europeans to contend with when conflicts broke out. In 1671, for instance, the Cherokee were tempted to switch allegiance from Great Britain to France as the Carolinians were rapidly taking over the lands of the Lower Cherokee.
1760-1762: Cherokee War breaks out between Cherokee and South Carolinians. Much death and destruction occurred on both sides and the Cherokee were finally forced to sue for peace against the much larger British force. The Cherokee were forced to give up their lands for white settlers as a result of losing the war. This kept pushing the natives farther west as time went on.
1777: 36 Cherokee villages and its inhabitants were massacred by American troops in the beginning of the American Revolution. The Cherokees agreed to cede almost all of their lands in the Carolinas at gunpoint. The Americans made little effort to distinguish between neutral and hostile Cherokee. Apparently, they wanted to drive the natives from their land.
1814: After the Americans under Andrew Jackson had defeated Creek forces in the Creek War, Jackson demanded prodigious land cessions from both the enemy Creek and the American ally, the Cherokee. One could only imagine how shocked the Cherokee were treated and unappreciated. Andrew Jackson truly despised the natives and wished to rid them permanently.
1817: The Turkey Town treaty was the first formal recognition of Western Cherokee by the United States. Under its terms, the Cherokee ceded its lands in Tennessee in exchange for a reservation situated in Arkansas. Soon after this mass migration, Americans living in Arkansas wanted to rid their land of natives and they got what they wished for as the Cherokee agreed to move to Oklahoma.
1825: Cherokee adapt to white culture as they change their current type of government to an elected tribunal council and adopt a written constitution closely modeled after that of the United States. One could say that the process of assimilation of the native peoples into white culture had begun.
1830: Georgia unilaterally stripped Cherokee of legal protection and divided up its lands. Citizens of Georgia were even allowed to murder, burn, and destroy the Cherokee and their villages.
1832: John Ross appeals to the United States Supreme Court to protect his people and won two cases. However, the legal victories were useless as President Jackson refused to enforce the decision of the Supreme Court. He stated: “Justice Marshall has made his decision. Let him enforce it.” In essence, the natives were in major trouble and virtually had no where to turn for help.
1838: The Cherokee were forced by the American Army led by General Winfield Scott to head west on the infamous Trail of Tears. Many Cherokee died along the way and never received proper burial. The Cherokee Nation had protested the decision before hand, but was turned down.
1865: The victorious Union Army remembered that General Stand Watie assisted the Confederates during the Civil War and decided to punish the Cherokee. Again, large lands settled by the Cherokee were taken for railroad construction, white settlement, and relocation of other Indian tribes. The Cherokee never made a full recovery and became impoverished. They had to lease land to white tenant farmers in order to survive.
1906: Oklahoma becomes the 46th State in the Union. The Cherokee Nation was also dissolved this year.
1961: The Cherokee were compensated $15,000,000 by the United States for taking their land and causing all the hardships the natives endured. It was a way for the United States to try to make up for what it unjustly took from the native peoples already settled in the New World.
CJ fills in details between the Trail of Tears and the Civil War
1540 - The Portuguese DeSoto expedition through the present-day southeastern United States is the first contact between Europeans and the Cherokee.
1684 - The colony of South Carolina makes a trade treaty with the Cherokee, mainly involving deerskin and Indian slaves. This causes the Cherokee to become hunters and warlike people, arming themselves with English muskets and fighting other tribes like the Catawba over the ensuing decades.
1721 - A treaty is signed settling the boundary and regulating trade with the British colonies, the first formal boundary affirmation in Cherokee history.
1755 - After winning a battle at Taliwa with the Creeks, the Cherokee were seen by the British as worthy allies in their new war with the French in America.
1759-1762 - After the British and American colonists abandon the Cherokee, the latter seized Virginians’ horses, and were attacked by the white men, sparking the Cherokee war (1760-1762). The Cherokee ended up ceding much of their territory in the Carolinas by the end of the decade.
1770-1775 - Treaties like the Lochabar, Augusta, and Overhill Cherokee cede much land in Georgia and Kentucky to white settlers. Many of these lands belonged to the Shawnee.
1817 - After years of fighting with other Indians and Americans, the Turkey Town Treaty is signed, with the Western Cherokee ceding much of their land in exchange for relocation to a reservation in Arkansas, much to the Osages’ dismay. The Eastern Cherokee, with a new tribal council and constitution, begin flourishing, owning slaves, livestock, and many other forms of property, and had also fought with Andrew Jackson at Horseshoe Bend three years earlier.
1828 - Andrew Jackson is elected president.
1829 - The Indian Removal Act is passed, allowing for the United States government to negotiate the relocation of Native Americans living east of the Mississippi River.
1830-1835 - Cherokee Nation v. Georgia and Worcester v. Georgia are won on Cherokee behalf, but without Jackson’s support, a reign of terror by Georgians begins, and property is seized and many Cherokee are murdered without the consequence of the law.
1833 - The Western Cherokee again move, this time to reservations in Oklahoma.
1835 - The Treaty of New Echota is signed, with the Cherokee agreeing to a compensation of $5 million, and seven million acres in Oklahoma. They have until May 1838 to leave.
1838 - The deadline for the Cherokee to leave Georgia comes, and those who had not moved yet were “escorted” on the Trail of Tears by 7,000 American soldiers under General Winfield Scott.
1839 - Civil war erupts between the Western and Eastern Cherokee in Oklahoma. Many leaders, including John Ridge, were murdered during the violence.
1846 - After threats from the American government to formally divide the Cherokee into separate tribes, they unite to form the Cherokee Nation.
1846-1861 - The Cherokee “Golden Age” occurs. Cherokee once again become prosperous, led by wealthy, mixed-blood men.
1861-1865 - The United States Civil War erupts, with the Cherokee taking the side of the South (as they owned many slaves). They lose 1/3 of their population due to intense fighting.
1866-1868 - Large parts of Cherokee land are seized to accommodate railroad construction.
1887 - After oil is discovered in Oklahoma, white settlers overrun the territory, and the Dawes Act allots 2/3 of Indian land to whites.
1895 - The Curtis Act dissolves tribal government.
1901 - Native Americans are granted citizenship and given the right to vote.
1906 - The Cherokee Nation is formally dissolved.
1948 - The Wheeler-Howard Indian Reorganization Act, passed 14 years earlier, forms the Cherokee government in place today.
1961 - The Cherokee Nation is awarded $15 million in exchange for lands of the Cherokee Outlet by the United States Claims Commission.