Frances Trolloppe, Domestic Manners of the Americans
CINCINNATI, OHIO. 1828. Absence of Amusements; Revivals; Unhappy Influence of Religion on Women in America.
I never saw any people who appeared to live so much without amusement as the Cincinnatians. Billiards are forbidden by law, so are cards. To sell a pack of cards in Ohio subjects the seller to a penalty of fifty dollars. They have no public balls, excepting, I think, six, during the Christmas holidays. They have no concerts. They have no dinner parties.
They have a theatre, which is, in fact, the only public amusement of this triste [sad] little town; but they seem to care little about it, and either from economy or distaste, it is very poorly attended. Ladies are rarely seen there, and by far the larger proportion of females deem it an offence against religion to witness the representation of a play. It is in the churches and chapels of the town that the ladies are to be seen in full costume: and I am tempted to believe that a stranger from the continent of Europe would be inclined, on first reconnoitering the city, to suppose that the places of worship were the theatres and cafes of the place. No evening in the week but brings throngs of the young and beautiful to the chapels and meetinghouses, all dressed with care, and sometimes with great pretension; it is there that all display is made, and all fashionable distinction sought. The proportion of gentlemen attending these evening meetings is very small, but often, as might be expected, a sprinkling of smart young clerks make this sedulous display of ribbons and ringlets intelligible and natural. Were it not for the churches, indeed, I think there might be a general bonfire of best bonnets, for I never could discover any other use for them.
The ladies are too actively employed in the interior of their houses to permit much parading in full dress for morning visits. There are no public gardens or lounging shops of fashionable resort, and were it not for public worship, and private tea-drinkings, all the ladies in Cincinnati would be in danger of becoming perfect recluses.
The influence which the ministers of all the innumerable religious sects throughout America have on the females of their respective congregations, approaches very nearly to what we read of in Spain, or in other strictly Roman Catholic countries. There are many causes for this peculiar influence. Where equality of rank is affectedly acknowledged by the rich, and clamorously claimed by the poor, distinction and pro-eminence are allowed to the clergy only. This gives them high importance in the eyes of the ladies. I think, also, that it is from the clergy only that the women of America receive that sort of attention which is so dearly valued by every female heart throughout the world. With the priests [i.e., ministers] of America the women hold that degree of influential importance which, in the countries of Europe, is allowed them throughout all orders and ranks of society, except, perhaps, the very lowest; and in return for this they seem to give their hearts and souls into their keeping. I never saw, or read, of any country where religion had so strong a hold upon the women, or a slighter hold upon the men.
I mean not to assert that I met with no men of sincerely religious feelings, or with no women of no religious feelings at all; but I feel perfectly secure of being correct as to the great majority in the statement I have made.
We had not been many months in Cincinnati when our curiosity was excited by hearing the "revival" talked of by every one we met throughout the town. "The revival will be very full"--" We shall be constantly engaged during the revival"--were the phrases we constantly heard repeated, and for a long time without in the least comprehending what was meant; but at length I learnt that the un-national church of America required to be roused, at regular intervals, to greater energy and exertion. At these seasons the most enthusiastic of the clergy travel the country, and enter the cities and towns by scores, or by hundreds, as the accommodation of the place may admit and for a week or fortnight, or, if the population be large, for a month; they preach and pray all day, and often for a considerable portion of the night, in the various churches and chapels of the place. This is called a Revival.
I took considerable pains to obtain information on this subject; but in detailing what I learnt I fear that it is probable I shall be accused of exaggeration; all I can do is cautiously to avoid deserving it. The subject is highly interesting, and it would be a fault of no trifling nature to treat it with levity.
These itinerant clergymen are of all persuasions, I believe, except the Episcopalian, Catholic, Unitarian, and Quaker. I heard of Presbyterians of all varieties; of Baptists of I know not how many divisions; and of Methodists of more denominations than I can remember; whose innumerable shades of varying belief it would require much time to explain and more to comprehend. They enter all the cities, towns, and villages of the Union in succession; I could not learn with sufficient certainty to repeat, what the interval generally is between their visits. These itinerants are, for the most part, lodged in the houses of their respective followers, and every evening that is not spent in the churches and meeting-houses, is devoted to what would be called parties by others, but which they designate as prayer-meetings. Here they eat, drink, pray, sing, hear confessions, and make converts. To these meetings I never got invited, and therefore I have nothing but hearsay evidence to offer, but my information comes from an eye witness, and one on whom I believe I may depend. If one half of what I heard may be believed, these social prayer-meetings are by no means the least curious, or the least important part of the business.
It is impossible not to smile at the close resemblance to be traced between the feelings of a first-rate Presbyterian or Methodist lady, fortunate enough to have secured a favourite Itinerant for her meeting, and those of a first-rate London Blue, equally blest in the presence of a fashionable poet. There is a strong family likeness among us all the world over.
The best rooms, the best dresses, the choicest refreshments solemnize the meeting. While the party is assembling, the load-star of the hour is occupied in whispering conversations with the guests as they arrive. They are called brothers and sisters, and the greetings are very affectionate. When the room is full, the company, of whom a vast majority are always women, are invited, intreated, and coaxed to confess before their brothers and sisters, all their thoughts, faults, and follies.
These confessions are strange scenes; the more they confess, the more invariably are they encouraged and caressed. When this is over, they all kneel, and the Itinerant prays extempore. They then eat and drink; and then they sing hymns, pray, exhort, sing, and pray again, till the excitement reaches a very high pitch indeed. These scenes are going on at some house or other every evening during the revival, nay, at many at the same time, for the churches and meetinghouses cannot give occupation to half the Itinerants, though they are all open throughout the day, and till a late hour in the night, and the officiating ministers succeed each other in the occupation of them.
It was at the principal of the Presbyterian churches that I was twice witness to scenes that made me shudder; in describing one, I describe both, and every one; the same thing is constantly repeated. . . .
When the singing ended, another [minister] took the centre place, and began in a sort of coaxing affectionate tone, to ask the congregation if what their dear brother had spoken had reached their hearts? Whether they would avoid the hell he had made them see? "Come, then!" he continued, stretching out his arms towards them, "come to us and tell us so, and we will make you see Jesus, the dear gentle Jesus, who shall save you from it. But you must come to him! You must not be ashamed to come to him! This night you shall tell him that you are not ashamed of him; we will make way for you; we will clear the bench for anxious sinners to sit upon. Come, then! come to the anxious bench, and we will show you Jesus! Come! Come! Come!"
Again a hymn was sung, and while it continued, one of the three [ministers] was employed in clearing one or two long benches that went across the rail, sending the people back to the lower part of the church. The singing ceased, and again the people were invited, and exhorted not to be ashamed of Jesus, but to put themselves upon "the anxious benches," and lay their heads on his bosom. "Once more we will sing," he concluded, "that we may give you time." And again they sung a hymn.
And now in every part of the church a movement was perceptible, slight at first, but by degrees becoming more decided. Young girls arose, and sat down, and rose again; and then the pews opened, and several came tottering out, their hands clasped, their heads hanging on their bosoms, and every limb trembling, and still the hymn went on; but as the poor creatures approached the rail their sobs and groans became audible. They seated themselves on the "anxious benches;" the hymn ceased, and two of the three priests [i.e., ministers] walked down from the tribune, and going, one to the right, and the other to the left, began whispering to the poor tremblers seated there. These whispers were inaudible to us, but the sobs and groans increased to a frightful excess. Young creatures, with features pale and distorted, fell on their knees on the pavement, and soon sunk forward on their faces; the most violent cries and shrieks followed, while from time to time a voice was heard in convulsive accents, exclaiming, "Oh Lord !" "Oh Lord Jesus !" "Help me, Jesus!" and the like.
Meanwhile the two priests [ministers] continued to walk among them; they repeatedly mounted on the benches, and trumpet-mouthed proclaimed to the whole congregation, "the tidings of salvation," and then from every corner of the building arose in reply, short sharp cries of "Amen!" "Glory!" "Amen!" while the prostrate penitents continued to receive whispered comfortings, and from time to time a mystic caress. More than once I saw a young neck encircled by a reverend arm. Violent hysterics and convulsions seized many of them, and when the tumult was at the highest, the priest who remained above again gave out a hymn as if to drown it.
It was a frightful sight to behold innocent young creatures, in the gay morning of existence, thus seized upon, horror-struck, and rendered feeble and enervated for ever. One young girl, apparently not more than fourteen, was supported in the arms of another some years older; her face was pale as death; her eyes wide open, and perfectly devoid of meaning; her chin and bosom wet with slaver; she had every appearance of idiotism. I saw a priest approach her, he took her delicate hand, "Jesus is with her! Bless the Lord!" he said, and passed on.
Did the men of America value their women as men ought to value their wives and daughters, would such scenes be permitted among them?
It is hardly necessary to say, that all who obeyed the call to place themselves on the "anxious benches" were women, and by far the greater number, very young women. The congregation was, in general, extremely well dressed, and the smartest and most fashionable ladies of the town were there; during the whole revival, the churches and meeting-houses were every day crowded with well-dressed people.
It is thus the ladies of Cincinnati amuse themselves: to attend the theatre is forbidden; to play cards is unlawful; but they work hard in their families, and must have some relaxation. For myself, I confess that I think the coarsest comedy ever written would be a less detestable exhibition for the eyes of youth and innocence than such a scene.
Phoebe Palmer and Holiness Theology
Kerri on Palmer's spiritual biography
“Despite her lifelong piety, Palmer had not experienced the powerful emotional conversion typical of evangelicals in general and Methodists in particular. At least, she did not believe that she had.”
“Though for many happy years she was enabled to testify, with perfect assurance, that she had passed from death unto life, yet the precise time when that change took place she could never state. Not to have an experience like most others born into the kingdom of Christ, who are so fully able, from the overwhelming circumstances of the occasion, to state the precise moment, was a fruitful source of temptation, resulting in years of painful solicitude.”
“It was not that Palmer lacked for profound spiritual experiences. It was that she did not have the conversion experience described by so many.”
“It was in the midst of these unsatisfied longings for the experience of salvation, as she imagined it must be, that she met and fell in love with Walter Palmer. She was nineteen when they married.”
“What sets this apart from the enormous number of contemporary poems about the death of a beloved infant child is what Palmer calls the "blessing of mercy." She and her husband were too devoted to their child. Love for him took away from their spiritual commitment to the Lord. Hence, "Thou must resign thy child."
“Palmer was not yet twenty-nine when she lost this third child. Infant mortality rates were high in the early nineteenth century, so the Palmers were not unique in losing so many children. Yet her understanding of the meaning of these deaths set her apart from other bereaved parents. Palmer situated these tragedies in what she had created as the master narrative of her life, her quest for an ultimate spiritual experience, one that would completely transform her. In a sense, she concluded that they died so that she could live.”
“Finally, she realized her ambition. On July 27, 1837 she wrote in her diary, "Last evening, between the hours of eight and nine, my heart was emptied of self, and cleansed of all idols, from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, and I realized that I dwelt in God, and felt that he had become the portion of my soul, my ALL IN ALL." July 26, 1837 was, in her words, the 'day of days.’”
“Palmer came to exercise such influence because she offered a "shorter way" to the most profound spiritual experiences. She discovered the power of indirection and offered her own advances in Holiness as a template for others in "Notes on the Way" that complemented and completed The Way of Holiness.”
Lisa on what contemporaries might have related to in Palmer's experiences:
From the beginning, the quotes from The Way in Holiness, make me think that although she thinks her case is the rarity, I tend to doubt it. I would actually think that she is being truthful in her religious experiences. She writes, “Yet the precise time when that change took place she could never state.” “It was not that Palmer lacked for profound spiritual experiences. It was that she did not have the conversion experience described by so many.”
I think it is this truthfulness that Palmer describes that actually attracted so many of her followers. They probably had similar experiences, or lack of this conversion experience, that she went through for so long that they understood and related to this.
I thought it seemed a bit extreme the way she felt she had loved her first two boys too much and “forgotten” about God. It was thought that the death of her children was a punishment towards her lack of faith at that time. But, I did find it interesting that after these first two losses and this renewal of faith, their third child lived. The death of her fourth child then motivated her to spend more time on religion. She wrote, “And now I have resolved, that the service, or in other words, the time I would have devoted to her, shall be spent in work for Jesus.” The author comments on this in saying that infant mortality rates were high and therefore these 3 deaths were not unique to her, but that “her understanding of the meaning of these deaths set her apart from other bereaved parents…In a sense, she concluded that they died so that she could live.”
This faith after the death of her children was probably also an attractive feature of Palmer’s Way in Holiness. She stayed strong through all of this and turned to God and it was through these experiences that she actually found her calling and experienced her “day of days.” Since so many people were experiencing the death of the infants, this was one more way people related to Palmer and in a way then trusted her experiences and words.
Emily V. on Palmer's loss of three children
-“Their first child, Alexander, was born in September 1828 and died nine months later. Phoebe saw his death as a judgment. In "Our First Born," written close to the time but published posthumously in A Mother's Gift: or, A Wreath for my Darlings (New York, 1875), she wrote of the loss:
(part of the poem she wrote)
But soon still small voice from Heaven,
Whispered in accents mild, —
The blessing of mercy given,
But ah! it draws the heart from Heaven,
Thou must resign thy child.
. . . . . .
Oh! then the sad, the rending stroke,
As in the "midnight" came,
Affection's tender ties were broke,
Which might have loosed when mercy spoke
And not have given such pain.
Oh! there our Alexander lives,
Where beauty's bud ne'er dies!
Though snatched from love's maternal arms,
He's safe from all impending harms,
And calls us to the skies.
What sets this apart from the enormous number of contemporary poems about the death of a beloved infant child is what Palmer calls the "blessing of mercy." She and her husband were too devoted to their child. Love for him took away from their spiritual commitment to the Lord. Hence, "Thou must resign thy child."”
-“A second son, born in 1830, only survived seven weeks. She wrote in her diary on September 28, 1831, her wedding anniversary:
. . . another little son was entrusted. The treasure was lent but seven short weeks and then recalled; giving us two angel children in heaven, and leaving us childless on earth. I will not attempt to describe the pressure of the last crushing trial. Surely I needed it, or it would not have been given. God takes our treasure to heaven, that our hearts may be there also. The Lord had declared himself a jealous God; He will have no other Gods before Him. After my loved ones were snatched away, I saw that I had concentrated my time and attentions far too exclusively, to the neglect of the religious activities demanded. Though painfully learned, yet I trust the lesson has been fully apprehended. From henceforth, Jesus must and shall have the uppermost seat in my heart. -- Wheatley, Rev. Richard, The Life and Letters of Mrs. Phoebe Palmer (New York: Palmer & Hughes, 1876), p. 26”
-An excerpt about her daughter who died in a fire:
“After the angel spirit winged its way to Paradise, I retired alone, not willing that any one should behold my sorrow. While pacing the room, crying to God, amid the tumult of grief, my mind was arrested by a gentle whisper, saying, "Your Heavenly Father loves you. He would not permit such a great trial, without intending that some great good proportionate in magnitude and weight should result. He means to teach you some great lesson that might not otherwise be learned. He doth not willingly grieve or afflict the children of men. If not willingly, then he has some specific design in this, the greatest of all the trials you have been called to endure.”
-“The "shorter way" was to Holiness what the camp meeting/revival was to conversion. Conversion, prior to the First Great Awakening, had routinely gone on for months or even years. In the camp meeting or revival it took days, or even hours. Similarly, Holiness, the mystic sense of union with the Divine, was traditionally a life-long quest in which the seeker left the world behind. Palmer, for all the self-imposed delays she described, was a young wife not yet thirty on her "day of days." She had one child and would have two more in the years immediately following. This, however, did not diminish the intensity of her ecstactic union with the Lord. Neither did her writing, her activity in church politics, or her lecturing.”
Kayla on the possibility that religious devotion can be "pretty crazy":
I thought it was interesting that unlike most other Evangelicals, Palmer does not even remember the first time that she realized that she was converted. She said that she could not even remember a day in which she said that she had converted.
"...yet the precise time when that change took place she could never state."
A thing that really confuses me about the death of all of their children, in particular the 1st, is that they seem to be ok with it. The excuse that is given is that her and her husband were "too devoted to their child". This just seems really weird because most would think that God would want them to be loving to their children. She even goes as far to say that the death of her children will be a lesson learned that she cannot forget about God. She says that he is a jealous God and that she needs to devote her time to him. She used God as the excuse that all of her children were dying. She even thought of it as a trial when her daughter was killed by a freak accident, fire. I think that it is very odd for someone who is so religous to think that God would do this to them. She even goes as far to say that she understands that her children were dying in order to keep her alive and that each death is a "stepping stone" in her spirtuality. This lady sounds pretty crazy if you ask me.
Palmer's extreme obsession, as I would call it, with religon was now being heard at many of her Tuesday night meetings and people were buying what she was saying. After she began traveling and spreading the word she then had two more children. She would probably have said that the children lived because at this time she had really found herself and was totally devoted to God.